Basic knowledge of Flanges by Saliran Industrial Supplies Sdn Bhd

Basic Knowledge of Flange

The flange is a ring-shaped device that can be used instead of welding or threading various piping system components used throughout the piping system. Because they may be easily dismantled for transportation, routine inspection, maintenance, or replacement, flanged connections are used as an alternative to welding. Because threading large bore pipe is neither cheap nor dependable, flange ends are preferred. The flange is an essential part of every plumbing system. Flanges are most commonly employed when connecting or disassembling a junction is required. Flanges can be found in pipe-to-fitting joints, valves, equipment, or any other important component of the piping system.

Flange Parts

A typical flanged connection is comprised of three parts:
  • Pipe
  • Flanges
  • Gasket
  • Bolting

Common Flange Types and Characteristics

Flanges are not a one-size-fits-all answer. Aside from sizing, selecting the best flange design for your piping system and intended use will help to assure dependable performance, a long service life, and a competitive price.

Here are some of the most prevalent flange types:

Threaded Flange

Threaded Flange
Threaded Flange

This design, also known as a screwed flange, has a thread inside the flange bore that matches the matching male thread on the pipe or fitting. Because of the threaded connection, you may avoid welding in many applications. Simply match the threading to the pipes to be joined.

Socket-Weld Flange

Socket Weld Flange
Socket-Weld Flange

Socket-weld flanges have a connection in which you fit the pipe into the flange and then secure the connection with a single multi-pass fillet weld. This makes this form easier to install than other welded flange types while eliminating the drawbacks of threaded ends.

Slip-On Flange

Slip On Flange
Slip-On Flange​

Slip-on flanges are widely used and come in a variety of sizes to support systems with increased flow rates and throughput. Installation is a little more complicated because you’ll need to fillet-weld both sides of the flange to fasten it to the pipe.

Lap Joint Flange

Lap Joint Flange
Lap Joint Flange

Lap joint flanges are two-piece designs that require butt welding the stub end to the pipe or fitting and the use of a backing flange to produce the flanged connection. Because of this, this type is ideal for usage in systems with limited physical area or systems that require frequent disassembly and repair.

Weld Neck Flange

Weld Neck Flange
Weld Neck Flange

Weld neck flanges require butt welding for installation. Their integrity, performance in systems with multiple repeat bends, and ability to be used in high-pressure and high-temperature systems, on the other hand, make them a top choice for process piping.

Blind Flange

Blind Flange
Blind Flange

Blind flanges are simply boltable blank discs that are used to terminate or isolate pipe systems. When properly placed and combined with the appropriate gaskets, they can provide an excellent seal that is simple to remove when necessary.

Specialty Flange

Specialty Flange
Nipple Flange
Specialty Flange
Orifice Flange
Long Weld Neck Flange
Long Weld Neck Flange

Nipple flanges, an essential component of fluid conveyance systems, securely join pipes and fittings. These threaded extensions are short and offer leak-free couplings and ease of installation. Nipple flanges, known for their adaptability, play an important part in a variety of sectors, from plumbing to oil and gas, guaranteeing efficient fluid movement.


Orifice flanges are critical components of fluid measuring and control systems. They have a precision-drilled hole that allows for accurate flow rate and pressure monitoring. These flanges are widely used in industries such as petrochemicals and manufacturing, where they ensure accurate fluid management and efficient processes.


Long weld neck flanges are designed for important applications requiring strength and integrity. Their expanded neck design provides additional support, decreasing joint stress. These flanges are extensively used in industries such as oil & gas and power generation and are ideal for high-pressure systems.

Flange Facing Types

    • Flat Face (FF): As the name implies, flat face flanges have a flat, even surface with a full face gasket that contacts the majority of the flange surface.
    • Raised Face (RF): These flanges have a little elevated area around the bore and an inside bore circle gasket.
    • Ring Joint Face (RTJ): This face type is used in high-pressure and high-temperature procedures and has a groove in which a metal gasket sits to maintain the seal.
    • T&G (Tongue-and-Groove): These flanges have matching grooves and elevated portions. The design facilitates installation by allowing the flanges to self-align and providing a reservoir for gasket glue.
    • Male and female (M&F) flanges: These flanges, like tongue and groove flanges, use a matching pair of grooves and raised parts to hold the gasket. Unlike tongue and groove flanges, however, these keep the gasket on the female face, allowing for more accurate positioning and a wider range of gasket material alternatives.

Flange Dimensions

Apart from a flange’s functional design, flange dimensions are the most probable factor to influence flange selection when developing, maintaining, or updating a pipe system. To ensure adequate sizing, consider how the flange interfaces with the pipe and the gaskets in use.

Common factors to consider include:

    • Outside diameter: The distance between two opposing flange face edges.
    • Thickness: The thickness of the outer adhering rim.
    • Bolt circular size: The distance calculated from center to center between opposing bolt holes
    • Pipe size: A reference to the pipe size to which the flange relates.
    • Nominal bore size: The inner diameter of the flange connector.

Flange Classification and Service Ratings

Flanges are frequently classified according to their capacity to tolerate high temperatures and pressures. This is denoted by a number followed by the “#,” “lb,” or “class” suffix. These suffixes are interchangeable, but they will vary depending on the location or provider.

Typical classifications include:

  • 150#
  • 300#
  • 600#
  • 900#
  • 1500#
  • 2500#

The exact pressure and temperature tolerances will vary depending on the materials utilized, the flange design, and the flange size. The sole constant is that pressure ratings decline as temperatures rise in all circumstances.

Product Tags

Carbon steel flanges Stainless steel flanges Blind flanges Threaded flanges Socket-weld flange Slip-on flange Lap joint flange Weld neck flange Specialty flange Orifice Flange 1/2″ flange flanges supplier malaysia 48″ flange 15mm flange 1200 mm flange 150# flange 300# flange 600# flange 900# flange 1500# flange 2500# flange Raised Face RF Ring Type Joint RTJ Flat Face FF Male & Female M&F Tongue Groove T&G SCH 10 flange SCH 20 flange SCH 30 flange SCH 40 flange SCH 60 flange SCH 80 flange SCH 100 flange SCH 120 flange SCH 140 flange SCH 160 flange SCH STD SCH XS SCH XXS SCH 10s SCH 40s SCH 80s ASME B16.1 ASME B16.5 ASME B16.20 ASME B16.21 ASME B16.24 ASME B16.34 ASME B16.36 ASME B16.42 ASME B16.47 MSS SP-6 MSS SP-9 MSS SP-25 MSS SP-44 MSS SP-53 MSS SP-54 MSS SP-55 MSS SP-75 MSS SP-106 API 605 API 6A API 6B ASME SA/A105N ASTM ASTM A694 F42 ASTM A694 F46 ASTM A694 F52 ASTM A694 F60 ASTM A694 F65 ASTM A694 F70 ASTM A707 L1 ASTM A707 L2 ASTM A707 L3 ASTM A707 L4 ASTM A707 L5 ASTM A707 L6 ASTM A707 L7 ASTM A707 L8 ASME/ASTM SA/A350 LF1 ASME/ASTM SA/A350 LF2 ASME/ASTM SA/A350 LF3 ASME/ASTM SA/A350 LF6 ASME/ASTM SA/A182F2 ASME/ASTM SA/A182F5 ASME/ASTM SA/A182F9 ASME/ASTM SA/A182F11 ASME/ASTM SA/A182F12 ASME/ASTM SA/A182F22 ASME/ASTM SA/A182F91 ASME/ASTM SA/A182F304/304L ASME/ASTM SA/A182F316/316L ASME/ASTM SA/A182F309 ASME/ASTM SA/A182F310 ASME/ASTM SA/A182F304H ASME/ASTM SA/A182F310H ASME/ASTM SA/A182F317/317L ASME/ASTM SA/A182F321 ASME/ASTM SA/A182F321H ASME/ASTM SA/A182F347 ASME/ASTM SA/A182F347H ASME/ASTM SA/A182F904L UNS S31803 UNS S32205 UNS S32750 UNS S32760 ASME/ASTM SA/A182F51 ASME/ASTM SA/A182F53 ASME/ASTM SA/A182F55 ASME/ASTM SA/A182F60 ASME/ASTM SB564 UNS N02200 (Nickel 200) UNS N02201 (Nickel 201) UNS N04400 (Monel 400) UNS N06600 (Inconel 600) UNS N06601 (Inconel 601) UNS N06625 (Inconel 625) UNS N08810 (Incoloy 800H) UNS N08811 (Incoloy 800HT) UNS N08825 (Inconel 825) UNS N010276 (Hastelloy C276) HIC PED 2014/68/EU NACE MR0175 NORSOK Weld Overlay 3/4″ flange 1″ flange 1-1/4″ flange 1-1/2″ flange 2″ flange 2-1/2″ flange 3″ flange 4″ flange 5″ flange 6″ flange 8″ flange 10″ flange 12″ flange 14″ flange 16″ flange 18″ flange 20″ flange 24″ flange diameter of flanges flanges dimension table Pipes flanges oil and gas flanges 20mm flange 25mm flange 32mm flange 40mm flange 50mm flange 65mm flange 80mm flange 100mm flange 125mm flange 150mm flange 200mm flange

Flange Standards and Markings

blog flange label
Typical flange markings can be found on a flange

Flanges are classified as global standards created by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) – ASME B16.5 & B16.47.

To aid in the replacement or verification of existing parts, all flanges must carry markings – often on their outer perimeter.

These markers are also in a certain order:

  • Logo or code of the manufacturer
  • ASTM material code
  • Material Grade
  • Service rating (Pressure-temperature Class)
  • Dimensions
  • Thickness (Schedule)
  • Special designations, if applicable — for example, QT for quenched and tempered or W for welding repair


Blind Flange, Slip on Flange, Welding Neck Flange, Socket Weld Flange, Threaded Flange, Lap Joint Flange, Anchor Flange, Orifice Flange

Size Range

1/2" (15mm) - 48" (1200mm)


150#, 300#, 600#, 900#, 1500#, 2500#

Type Available

Raised Face RF, Ring Type Joint RTJ, Flat Face FF, Male & Female M&F, Tongue Groove T&G


SCH 10, SCH 20, SCH 30, SCH 40, SCH 60, SCH 80, SCH 100, SCH 120, SCH 140, SCH 160


SCH 10s, SCH 40s, SCH 80s


ASME B16.1, ASME B16.5, ASME B16.20, ASME B16.21, ASME B16.24,

ASME B16.34, ASME B16.36, ASME B16.42, ASME B16.47

MSS SP-6, MSS SP-9, MSS SP-25, MSS SP-44, MSS SP-53, MSS SP-54, 

MSS SP-55, MSS SP-75, MSS SP-106

API 605, API 6A, API 6B


Carbon Steel


High Yield Carbon Steel

ASTM A694 F42/ 46/ 52/ 60/ 65/ 70

ASTM A707 L1~ L8

Low Temp Carbon Steel

ASME/ASTM SA/A350 LF1/ 2/ 3/ 6

Chrome Moly

ASME/ASTM SA/A182F2, F5 ,F9, F11, F12, F22, F91

Stainless Steel

ASME/ASTM SA/A182F304/304L, 316/316L, 309, 310, 304H, 310H, 317/317L, 321, 321H, 347, 347H, 904L

Duplex/ Super Duplex

UNS S31803, S32205, S32750, S32760
ASME/ASTM SA/A182F51, 53, 55, 60

Nickel Alloy

UNS N02200 (Nickel 200), UNS N02201 (Nickel 201)
UNS N04400 (Monel 400), ), UNS N06600 (Inconel 600)
UNS N06601 (Inconel 601), UNS N06625 (Inconel 625)
UNS N08810 (Incoloy 800H), UNS N08811 (Incoloy 800HT)
UNS N08825 (Inconel 825), UNS N010276 (Hastelloy C276)


HIC, PED 2014/68/EU, NACE MR0175, NORSOK, Weld Overlay available

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