Type of Valves Used in Piping

Type of valves used in piping

What is a valve? 

A valve is a device that controls the flow of fluids by opening and closing. Any substance that can flow freely is considered a fluid in a scientific setting, and valve can utilised either liquids or gases. Also, it regulates the flow of fluid in hydraulic, pneumatic, irrigation, plumbing, and motor systems. The venerable pre-transistor vacuum tube is sometimes referred to as a valve. 

Moreover, the simplest valve is one-way flap devices that open with backflow pressure and permit flow in one direction and shut to stop flow in the opposite direction. In essence, this is how the heart’s valves function. Furthermore, it can operates manually or with a motor, and in addition to being powered by the physics of flow. They can also be powered by pressure or temperature. 

Other than that, levers, pedals, hand knobs, or wheels are commonly used to crank a screw-turned stem on manual valve. A valve may include geared mechanical inner workings that activate the valve ball or disc against its seat, which may contain a gasket. Also, it can control fluid to onw or more than four ports. 

The functions of a valve in piping systems.

Valve plays an important role in boosting process efficiency, improving quality control, and maintaining process safety and reliability. The primary consideration in valve selection is the valve’s desired function. It is also used in piping systems for a variety of reasons, including: 

  • Initiation or cessation of fluid flow.
  • Controlling flow rates in a pipe system.
  • Pressure regulation and fluid temperature in a pipe system. 
  • Redirecting flow from one path to another and restricting flow for system balance or to avoid over-pressurization.
  • Prevent fluid reverse flow
  • In the event of a system breakdown, the flow is halted. 
  • Improving safety in a pipe system by alleviating pressure or vacuum. 

Type of Valves.

Different types of valves use in different sectors. These are the type of valves: 

i. Ball Valve

A spherical plug is used in ball valve. The spherical plug serves as a control element. It is commonly utilised in the chemical process industries. Moreover, it is utilised in situations where throttling and shutting down are essential. It has excellent flow properties. In addition, it is made up of a two-way globe with a ball that spins between robust seats. It is small, takes little maintenance, and does not require lubrication. Moreover, it is offered in three different patterns: venture, reduced, and full port. It can be closed or opened by turning the ball a quarter turn. And also, it does not provide adequate throttling. It is available in sizes ranging from 6mm to 900mm and it can withstand pressures of up to 500 kg/cm and temperatures of up to 300°C. 

ii. Gate Valve

The gate valve operates through the reciprocating movement of a disc within its body. It can have either a single or double disc. It is used to turn off the power. The shut off of a twin disc valve is satisfactory. 

Besides that, the stem of a gate valve might be rising or non-rising. It come in a variety of diameters ranging from 12mm to 30mm and even larger. Also, it is lightweight, inexpensive, and has a low pressure drop. Hence, it provides accurate flow control. It also can withstand pressures of up to 20kg/cm2 and temperatures of up to 675°C. Cast iron, carbon steel, stainless steel, ductile iron, bronze, nickel alloys, and other materials are used to create gate valves. Gate valve of the rotating disc type with a quick action lever actuator

iii. Global Valve 

Global valve works via the reciprocating movement of a disc or plug. The disc or plug slides toward or away from the seat, either stopping or permitting fluid passage. The disc or plug is inserted into the valve seat. Therefore, it is detachable. Besides that, the pressure drop in the globe valve is significant. 

iv. Check Valve

A check valve is used in piping systems to prevent backflow. The pressure of the fluid travelling through the pipeline causes the valve to open, Reverse flow prevents the fluid from flowing in the opposite direction by closing the valve. External control is not required for check valves. They operate automatically and hence lack an operating handle or stem. The most basic check valves have a one-way flap mechanism. 

Moreover, check valves are typically small, straightforward, and affordable. It is used in a variety of industrial applications, including feed water control systems, gas systems that combine various gases into a single gas stream, and fuel and oxidizer mixing systems. Also, they are frequently employed in household applications to avoid the mixing of a hygienic potable water supply with water from filthy systems. 

v. Needle Valve

A needle valve has a plug. The plug is tapered and fits snugly into the seat. Furthermore, the annular space between the tapered body of the plug and the seat controls the flow rate. It is also utilised for small, precise flows. The valve size ranges from 3mm to 25mm, and it can withstand temperatures and pressures of up to 260°C and 650 kg/cm respectively. 

Other than that, they are used to reduce pressure variations by controlling actuating air or hydraulic fluid. The needle valve can be made of bronze, brass, or stainless steel, among other materials.

vi. Butterfly Valve

The regulating element in a butterfly valve is a disc known as a blade, vane, or flapper, which rotates in a horizontal or vertical direction and permits fluid to flow, Throttling or on-off operation at modest pressure drop is possible with a butterfly valve. 

Besides that, it is inexpensive, simple to install, and prevents solids from accumulating. Also, butterfly valves can be screw-type or wafer-type. It can be operated manually, electrically, or automatically. Other than that, a butterfly valve of the water kind is depicted. It can be utilised for vacuum or pressure applications up to 80 kg/cm2. It is available in sizes ranging from 50mm to 900mm. The blade or flapper can be constructed or rubber, neoprene, or chloro sulphonated polyethylene and more. 

vii. Safety Relief Valve 

The fundamental purpose of Safety Relief Valve is to protect people, property, and the environment. It is a safety device that protects a pressurised vessel or system from over-pressure if all other safety devices fail. It is intended to open and relieve excess pressure form vessels or equipment before closing and preventing additional fluid, gas, or steam discharge once normal conditions have been restored.  

How are Valves in Piping Systems Classified?

Valve classification can be divided into various categories. They are classified according to function, working mechanism type, end connections, mechanical motion, construction material, pressure and temperature ratings, and port size. When selecting a valve, it is critical to analyse each of these classifications to ensure that the it is appropriate for the application. 

(A) Valve Function 

Valves are used in processes to perform a variety of purposes. They can be used to start and stop the flow as well as to adjust the flow and pressure. Also, they may be necessary to control the flow direction or to improve process safety. The types are classed based on flow control as isolation valves or regulation valves. 

(I) Isolation valves

Isolation valves are meant to either entirely limit or enable fluid flow without obstructing it. Hence, they should not used continuously in the partially open position because they may provide poor flow control or suffer wear damage over time.

(II) Regulation valves 

Regulation valves are used for precisely regulating pressure and fluid flow. They can be utilised in procedurres that require a partial open or closed state in a safe and efficient manner. 

However, some valves can do both jobs, while others are only suggested for one. 

(B) Operating Mode 

Based on how they are manipulated, valves are classed as manual, actuated, or automatic.

(I) Manual Valves

Manual valves are usually actuated by hand using wheels, levers, pedals, knobs, or chains. They can be mechanically geared to change movement direction and/or improve operation speed or torque.

(II) Actuated Valves

Valves are frequently coupled to electric motors, pneumatic systems, hydraulic systems, or solenoids in high-precision or large-scale applications to enable remote operation and automation of valve function. 

(III) Automatic Valves 

Some valves are actuated automatically when a certain flow condition is satisfied. During backflow, for example, check valves close without the need for external intervention. Similarly, when an over-pressure condition is identified, pressure release valves are engaged automatically. 

(C) End Connections 

Valves are joined to pipes by joints, which can be screwed, flanged, or welded. The following are some examples of common valves ends:  

  • Flanged end valves: A flange is a plate or ring at the end of a pipe or valve that forms a rim; two flanges are fastened together to form a connection. 
  • Screwed end valves: Screwed end valves feature threaded joints that are screwed to the end of a pipe or another fitting. 
  • Socket welded valves: The pipe is inserted and welded into a socket. 
  • Butt weld valves: The valves have beveled edges that correspond to a matching bevel on the pipe. 
  • Wafer type valves: The narrow valve body is located between two pipe flanges, with bolts around it. These valves are typically used on small-space systems.
(D) Mechanical Motion 

Valves are classed as Linear Motion Valves or Rotary Motion Valves based on the mechanical motion of the closing member. A linear motion valve is one in which the closing element of the valve moves in a straight line to allow or stop flow. A rotary motion valve is one in which the closing element rotates or moves in a circular path. 

Valves are also classed as multi-turn or quarter turn depending on how far the handle/wheel must be turned to completely open or close the valve. Rotary motion valves frequently require only a quarter turn (90°) of the stem to transition from completely open to fully closed.  

(E) Construction Material 

Depending on the intended temperature and pressure ratings, durability, and use, the valves body can be made of stainless steel, alloy steel, brass, cast iron, or plastics. To achieve the appropriate amount of seal and temperature/pressure ratings, the gasket, packaging, and valve seat are often composed of PTFE, ROM, FKM, PA, EPDM, or NBR. 

(F) Pressure-temperature ratings 

Valves can also be categorised based on their pressure and temperature specifications. These ratings describe the maximum permitted pressure and temperature levels that the valve may withstand safely. 

Looking for flanges, fittings, pipes and valves?

Saliran Group has over 10 years of experiences in trading of a wide range of flanges, pipes, valves, fittings, and related parts and accessories (“PVF products”) as well as steel products with numerous happy customers all around the world. We supply a variety of valve types such as Ball Valve, Gate Valve, Global Valve, Check Valve, Needle Valve, Butterfly Valve, and Safety Relief Valve.

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Lap Joint Flange

Lap Joint Flange

The shape of a lap joint flange is similar to a slip on flange; it has a curved radius at the bore that can connect with a stub end fitting and slide over the pipe. The pipe is usually welded to the stub end so that it can freely rotate around the stub end. Lap joint flange and stub end assembly are primarily used in piping systems that must be dismantled frequently for inspection or routine maintenance. 

To reduce the overall cost of the connection, a stub end will often be made of a special material grade (nickel alloy), with the lap joint made of basic carbon or commodity stainless. Naturally, for uniformity, we recommend that both items be of the same grade. However, your application will determine what is best and/or necessary.

Advantages and Disadvantages 

The composite two-piece construction gives the lap joint flange two clear benefits when in operation. Imagine a lapped joint piping connection where all “wetted” sections must be made of a costly alloy (such as nickel, zirconium, tantalum, or titanium, etc.) to resist corrosion. The pricey, corrosion-resistant alloy can be used to create the stub end. Besides that, common carbon steels can be used to create the flange that serves as the backing flange. Therefore, it is less expensive than an entire alloy flange. On the other hand, it is not physically welded to the pipe. Hence, it may rotate easily to align bolt holes, making assembly and disassembly much simpler. Also, this make it easier to operate a piping system that must frequently be disassembled for inspection or standard maintenance. 

However, the use of the flange has several drawbacks. The flange bore’s internal surface and the stub ends’ external surface have produced fissures that can easily become contaminated. Moreover, the accumulated contaminants might be problematic and cause crevice corrosion. At the design temperature specified by ASME B31.3, the longitudinal strains brought on by pressure, weight, and thermal expansion may build up and surpass the fundamental allowed stress. As a result, it is often utilized in moderate service, where the strains placed on the flange connection by the pipe are minimal. It is because the material of the flange may differ from that of the stub end, galvanic corrosion may occur in some circumstances. 

Usage of Lap Joint Flange 

Typically, low pressure applications require for the usage of the flanges. Hence, it is not appropriate when the flange pair must support heavy weights, Moreover, it may be necessary for some pipes, such as a metal pipe that has previously been lined with plastic. 

Stub End – Key Fittings for Lap Joint Flange

A backing flange for a lap joint is always utilized with a stub end. Stub ends come in three main types: Type A, Type B, and Type C. 

Type A:

The typical lap joint support flange can be machined to accommodate the Type A stub end.

Type B:

The standard slip on flange is intended to be used with Type B stub ends. 

Type C:

The type C stub end can be utilized as either a slip on flange or a lap joint flange. 

Furthermore, stub end patterns can be extensive or short in length. Long pattern ends are also referred to as ASA Stub Ends. The shorter end is used with ANSI 300 and 600’s bigger flanges. They are frequently utilized in sizes ANSI 900 and higher. 

Differences Between Lap Joint flange and Slip On Flange 

In essence, a slip on flange is a ring that fitted over the pipe end. Additionally, the flange face must be far enough from the pipe’s end to allow for the application of a weld to the inner diameter. Moreover, the slip on flanges outside diameter can be welded to the backside of the flange. Slip on flanges cost less to make and are simpler to align than weld neck flanges. 

Besides that, slip on flange and lap joint flange are quite similar. Also, it almost seems identical from the outside which is the holes and sides of the lap joint flange. However, it has a curved radius on the reverse side to allow the lap joint stub end. On the other hand, the slip on flange can serve as the lap joint flange when type B or type C stub ends are utilized. 

Looking for flanges, fittings and pipes?

Saliran Group has over 10 years of experiences in trading of a wide range of flanges, pipes, valves, fittings, and related parts and accessories (“PVF products”) as well as steel products with numerous happy customers all around the world. We supply variety of flange types such as blind flange, slip-on flange, weld neck flange, socket weld flange, threaded flange, lap joint flange, and orifice flange.

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Threaded Flange

Threaded Flange

What is a Threaded Flange?


Threaded flange, also known as screwed flange, has a thread inside the flange bore that fits on the pipe with a matching male thread. This type of joint connection is quick and easy to use. However, threaded flange is not suitable for high pressure or temperature applications. Threaded flange is commonly used in utilities such as air and water. 

Threaded flange is similar to slip on flange except that the bore is threaded. It can be assembled without welding. This explains its use in low pressure services at normal atmospheric temperatures and in highly explosive areas where welding poses a risk. As the tapers approach the same diameter, the threads seal between the threaded flange and the pipe. In addition to the threaded connection,  a seal weld is sometimes used. 

Also, they are available in a variety of sized and materials. The thread must be concentric with the axis of the flange opening, and alignment variations (perpendicular to the flange face) must be not more than 5mm per metre. Threaded flanges are available in NPS 1/2 through NPS 24 sizes and pressure ratings of Class 150, 300, 400, 600, and 900. NPS 1/2 to NPS 2-1/2 are available in Class 1500 and Class 2500 sizes. 

Connecting a pipe to the threaded flange
Key Characteristics of Threaded Flange 
  • No welding is required. 
  • Extremely good for small pipe sizes.
  • Larger load, especially when subjected to higher torque, should be avoided.
Uses of Threaded Flange 
  • Threaded flanges can be fitted to pipes of various sizes without welding. It is one of the main reasons why these flanges are so popular. 
  • It can be used in extremely high-pressure applications, particularly where post-weld heat treatment is not possible. 
  • It is ideal for piping with small diameters. 
  • Cost-effective and time-saving diameters. 
  • Threaded flanges are typically used in non-cyclic applications. 
  • The flanges can be used in applications where welding is dangerous. 
  • It can be used in potentially explosive environments. 
Advantages & Disadvantages of Threaded Flange 
  • Advantages
    • The threaded flange joint does not require welding to be assembled. Also, a pipe with tapered threads on both ends can be easily assembled with the threaded flange. Because of this feature, the threaded flange is well-suited to extreme pressure services that operate at normal ambient temperatures. And also, in highly explosive areas where welding may pose a hazard.
  • Disadvantages
    • The disadvantages of threaded flanges are obvious as well. The crevices formed between the external and internal threads have the potential to easily capture and retain process fluid. This makes the threaded connection vulnerable to crevice corrosion. It occurs when process fluid penetrates the thread region and causes failure. Furthermore, threaded joints are also significant stress risers. A relatively small number of cycles of expansion and contraction or movement brought on by misalignment may cause the threaded flange to fail. This is because of tightening increases stress in the thread region.
    • Besides that, threaded steel flanges are typically limited to water or air services in sizes NPS 6 (DN 150) or smaller, with a design temperature of no more than 250 °F. They are also not suitable for high temperature, cyclic stress, or corrosive fluid conditions. The dimensional tolerances of threaded flanges are nearly identical to those of slip on flanges. 

Looking for flanges, fittings and pipes?

Saliran Group has over 10 years of experiences in trading of a wide range of flanges, pipes, valves, fittings, and related parts and accessories (“PVF products”) as well as steel products with numerous happy customers all around the world. We supply variety of flange types such as blind flange, slip-on flange, weld neck flange, socket weld flange, threaded flange, lap joint flange, and orifice flange.

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Socket Weld Flange

Socket Weld Flange

What is a Socket Weld Flange?

Socket weld flange is commonly found on smaller diameter high pressure pipes. Inserting the pipe into the socket end and applying fillet weld around the top is how these pipe flanges are attached. This results in a smooth bore and improved flow of the fluid or gas inside the pipe. Furthermore, put on pipe flanges with hubs have published specifications ranging from 1/2” to 24”. Also, socket weld flange is available in a variety of material grades, specifications, and sizes.

Socket weld flange is normally available with a raised face, a flat face, or an RTJ facing. When a raised face is required for socket weld flanges, the standard height for socket weld flanges under 400# is 1/16”. And the standard socket weld flange raised face height for 400# and higher socket weld pipe flanges is 1/4″.

1 - Socket Weld Flange | 2 - Filled Weld | 3 - Pipe | X - Expansion Gap
Usage of Socket Weld Pipe

Pull back 1.6mm (1/16″) of the inserted pipe, put the pipe end into the socket weld flange until the pipe bottom touches the shoulder area, and then perform fillet welding. The goal is to weld a fillet to separate the flange from the pipes or fittings, leaving an expansion gap.

Features of Socket Weld Flange

A good fit of the pipe is made possible by the recess on the inside diameter of the socket weld flange, allowing for a smooth flow of liquid.

For smaller diameters and greater pressure/temperature settings, socket welding flanges are effective.

They are comparable to slip-on flanges, but they also have to state the schedule of the pipe they will be used with.

How Socket Weld Flange is Produced?

In order to prevent cracking faults brought on by thermal pressures during heating processes, the socket welding flange was initially employed for stainless steel superheaters. However, after years of development, it has become a regular application for all sorts of materials.

Types of Socket Welded Flange

Socket welded flanges, such as the raised face type and ring type joint type, are similar to other welding flange types (slip on, weld neck or blind flange).

Raised Face Type

A tiny piece of the RF Type RF socket weld flange projects from the face and surrounds the flange bore. This raised portion will house the gasket seat.

Ring Type Joint Type

There is an RTJ style groove on the raised face surface that you may fit a gasket ring in to improve sealing abilities.

Advantages of Socket Welded Flange
  • To reduce the possibility of leaking, socket weld flanges could take the place of threaded flanges.
  • Before welding, there is no need to bevel.
  • Outside of the pipe, welding work cannot enter the pipe bore.
  • Applications where interior welding operations are extremely challenging are advised to use it. Internal pockets are removed to the sock welding process. It is to prevent heat warpage and weld spatter damage to the flange face. 
  • It has a longer fatigue life and the same internal pressure as sliding on the flange.

Disadvantages of Socket Welded Flange

  • Socket welding needs more advanced welding abilities since the increasing space between the pipe and shoulder must be maintained at 1/16 inch during welding.
  • For anti-corrosive pipes like stainless steel pipes, the expansion gap increases the likelihood of crack flaws, therefore cracks between the pipe and flange will result in corrosive issues.
  • Socket Weld flange cannot be used in corrosive or radioactive environments. It is because of the risk of operating and maintenance issues associated with solid build-up at the junction. Hence, welding is used more frequently. It makes connections stronger and less susceptible to corrosion when it is done entirely through the pipe from the outside to the inside.

The Differences Between Socket Weld Flange & Slip On Flange

Socket Weld Flange
Slip On Flange

Socket weld flange is similar in shape to a slip-on flange; however, a socket-welded flange differs in having a shoulder at the inner bore.

Also, there is no shoulder at the inner bore for a slip-on flange.

Other than that, the static strength of a socket weld flange is the same as that of a slip-on flange, but its fatigue strength is 50% greater than that of a double-welded slip-on flange.

Looking for flanges, fittings and pipes?

Saliran Group has over 10 years of experiences in trading of a wide range of flanges, pipes, valves, fittings, and related parts and accessories (“PVF products”) as well as steel products with numerous happy customers all around the world. We supply variety of flange types such as blind flange, slip-on flange, weld neck flange, socket weld flange, threaded flange, lap joint flange, and orifice flange.

Click on the link below to contact us now!


Weld Neck Flange

Weld Neck Flange

What is a Weld Neck Flange?


Weld neck flange is also known as a tapered hub flange or high-hub flange. Weld neck flange is a type of flange that can relocate stress to the pipes, resulting in a reduction in high-stress concentration at the flange’s bottom. There are two types of welding neck flanges: the first is used with wipes, while the second, longer type is used with process plants rather than pipes. Moreover, it is made up of a round fitting that extends beyond the circumference’s rim. These flanges, which are typically made of forging, are welded to pipes.

Furthermore, the rim is drilled with numerous holes to allow the flanged to be attached to a bolted flange. Because of the structural valve, this design is far superior. And the flanges are easily identified by the long-tapered hub that gradually extends over to the wall thickness of a pipe or fitting.

Weld Neck Flange
1.Weld Neck flange 2.Butt Weld 3.Pipe or Fitting

Product Structure


Weld Neck Flanges are flanges that are designed to be buttwelded to a piping system. This type of flange includes numerous specifications. Besides that, the long-tapered hub serves as an important reinforcement in a variety of applications involving high pressure, sub-zero, and/or elevated temperatures. Also, under conditions of repeated bending caused by line expansion or other variable forces, the smooth transition from flange thickness to pipe or fitting wall thickness effected by the taper is extremely beneficial.

It is also more expensive due to its long neck and the cost of people to connect the flange to the pipeline or fitting. However, it is preferred for high-stress applications. Moreover, the stresses are transmitted to the pipeline via the necks, or hubs. Furthermore, the gradual transition of thickness from the base of the hub to the wall thickness at the butt weld reinforces the flange.

Type of Weld Neck Flange


Weld neck flanges come in two shapes: one with a reducing neck, known as reducing weld neck flange, and one with an even diameter of a typical long neck, known as long neck weld flange.

i. Reducing Weld Neck Flange

As the name implies, it is a combination of a pipe reducer and a flange that can be welded directly to a smaller pipe.

Reducing Weld Neck Flange
Reducing Weld Neck Flange
ii. Long Weld Neck Flange

Long weld neck flanges are commonly found on vessel nozzles and equipment. Moreover, the flanges are made to fit the inside diameter of the pipe or fitting. Also, it is bored to match because it reduces the corrosion and turbulence that occurs inside the pipe.

Long Weld Neck Flange
Long Weld Neck Flange

Application of Weld Neck Flange


Welded neck flanges have a long-tapered hub and are frequently used in high-pressure applications. It is critical to specify the schedule pipe used when ordering a flange. This is due to the inside diameter of flange matching the inside diameter of your pipe. This flange’s buttweld joint with the pipe, combined with the tapered hub, makes it very resistant to dishing and a very sturdy connection. These flanges are ideal for extreme temperature fluctuations and environments where the flanges will be bent and handled frequently.



Weld neck flanges are appropriate for use in hostile environments with temperature, pressure, or other sources of stress. Also, this type of flange achieves resilience by sharing environmental stress with the pipe to which it is welded. Other than that, this flange has been used successfully at pressures as high as 5,000 psi.

On the other hand, its name from the flange’s neck, which is welded to the end of a piping system. Hence, it is intended to transfer stress to the pipe, reducing high stress concentrations at the flange’s base. By that, it is more expensive due to their design and engineering, as well as the increased material.

Material & Grades of Weld Neck Flanges


Carbon Steel

  •       ASME/ASTM SA/A105N

High Yield Carbon Steel

  •       ASTM A694 F42/46/52/60/65/70
  •       ASTM A707 L1~ L8

Low Temp Carbon Steel

  •        ASME/ASTM SA/A350 LF1/2/3/6

Chrome Moly

  •        ASME/ASTM SA/A182F2,F5,F9,F11,F12,F22,F91

Stainless Steel

  •        ASME/ASTM SA/A182F304/ 304L,316/ 316L, 309, 310, 310H, 317/317L,321,321H,347,347H

Duplex/ Super Duplex

  •        ASME/ASTM SA/A182F51, 53, 55, 60
  •        UNS S31803/ S32205/ S32750/S32760

Nickel Alloy

  •        ASME/ASTM SB564
  •        UNS N02200 (Nickel 200), UNS N02201 (Nickle 201)
  •        UNS N04400 (Monel 400), UNS N06600 (Inconel 600)
  •        UNS N06601 (Inconel 601), UNS N06625 (Inconel 625)
  •        UNS N08825 (Inconel 825), UNS N010276 (Hastelloy C276)


  •        HIC, PED 97/23/EC, NACE MR0175 available


Looking for flanges, fittings and pipes?

Saliran Group has over 10 years of experiences in trading of a wide range of flanges, pipes, valves, fittings, and related parts and accessories (“PVF products”) as well as steel products with numerous happy customers all around the world. We supply variety of flange types such as blind flange, slip-on, weld neck flange, socket weld, threaded, lap joint flange, and orifice.

Click on the link below to contact us now!  


Carbon Steel Pipe

Carbon Steel Pipe

Carbon Steel Pipe

What is a Carbon Steel Pipe?


Carbon steel pipe is made of carbon steel which is an iron and carbon steel alloy that considered as a tough material. Carbon steel pipe is also the most widely used pipeline material for construction, structural, and liquid transmissions for water, oil, and gas. Hence, it is utilised in a wide range of heavy-duty industries. This including infrastructure, ships, distilleries, and chemical fertiliser equipment because of its strength and capacity to endure stress. Therefore, it must withstand the application’s pressure, temperature, and corrosion conditions. 

Furthermore, these requirements are met by using pipe manufactured in accordance with an ASTM or API standard. The standard grades of carbon steel pipe include API 5L Grade B, X42 to X70, ASTM A106 B, ASTM A53 B, ASTM A252 Grade 3, and ASTM A333 Grade 6, among others.



Carbon steel pipe is used for both above- and below-ground liquid, gas, and steam services. It should not be used in corrosive services, but it can be used in caustic services.


Safe & Long lasting

Carbon steel pipe is both safe and long-lasting. It is an ideal material for structural applications. It is because it is shock resistant and unaffected by harsh environmental conditions such as pressure or extreme weather.


Because of carbon steel’s incredible strength, carbon steel pipe can be made thinner and with less material while still transporting large volumes. As a result, it is a cost-effective material. 

Environmentally friendly

Furthermore, carbon steel is not only less expensive, but it is also recyclable. Hence, it is environmentally friendly and cost-effective.


Moreover, it is a versatile material because it is simple to manufacture. Therefore, it can be made in various thicknesses and sizes. Also, It is simple to cut and bend to fit wherever it is required.

Grade of steel used


Carbon steel pipe comes in a variety of grades and strengths, as well as wall thicknesses. As we have seen, the allowable stress is used to determine the required wall thickness. Hence, the allowable stress is determined by both the material’s metallurgy and the manufacturing method.


Other than that, the various ASTM and API piping specifications provide guidelines for both metallurgy and manufacturing method. For example, ASTM Specifications A-53 and A-106, as well as API Standard 5L, are the most widely used piping specifications for process lines. 


Also, the primary wall thicknesses used are defined by schedules, such as Schedule 40, and weights, such as STD. In Grades A and B, ASTM A53 and ASTM A106 pipe are fabricated SMLS or seamed by electric resistance welding. However, tensile strength is higher in grades B. Besides that, ASTM A106 is available in three grades, A, B, and C, in descending order of tensile strength.

Manufacturing Methods


There are numerous methods for producing carbon steel pipes, and each one results in a pipe with a unique set of properties. Strength, wall thickness, corrosion resistance, and restrictions on temperature and pressure are a few of these qualities. For instance, pipes with the same wall thickness but different manufacturing processes may have varying strengths and pressure limits.

Seamless pipe is created by piercing a solid, near-molten steel rod, known as a billet, with a mandrel, resulting in a pipe with no seams or joints. Figure 1.0 depicts the manufacturing process of seamless pipe.

Seamless pipe
Figure 1.0 Sizing seamless pipe.

Seamless Pipe

Size Range

1/4″ (8mm) – 48″ (1200mm)


SCH 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160 SCH, STD, XS, XXS, SCH 10s, 40s, 80s


ASME/ANSI B36.10, B36.19


Carbon Steel


Butt-welded pipe is made by passing hot steel plate through shapers, which roll it into a hollow circular shape. Forcing the two ends of the plate together will result in a fused joint or seam. Figure 2.0 shows the steel plate as it begins the process of forming a butt-welded pipe.

Butt weld pipe
Figure 2.0 Shaping butt-weld pipe.


Spiral-welded pipe is the least common of the three methods. The spiral-welded pipe is made by twisting metal strips into a spiral shape, similar to a barber’s pole, and then welding the edges together to form a seam. Because of its thin walls, this type of pipe is limited to low-pressure piping systems. Figure 3.0 depicts spiral-welded pipe prior to welding.

Spiral-welded pipe
Figure 3.0 Forming spiral-welded pipe.

Welded Line Pipe


6mm ~ 200mm




API 5L Annex E ( as per client requirement)

Heat Treatment

As per request


Internal and external coating available as per request


Carbon Steel


Size Range


2″ (50mm) ~ 18″ (600mm)


16″ (400mm) ~ 60″ (450mm)

Lastly, the figure below shows the three previously described pipes in their final configuration.

Manufactured carbon steel pipe
Figure 4.0 Manufactured carbon steel pipe.

Saliran Group has over 10 years of experiences in trading of a wide range of flanges, pipes, valves, fittings, and related parts and accessories (“PVF products”) as well as steel products with numerous happy customers all around the world. We supply a variety of carbon steel pipe including carbon steel seamless pipe, carbon steel welded pipe, and carbon steel pipe flanges. 

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Stainless Steel Pipe

Stainless Steel Pipe

Stainless Steel Pipe
Stainless Steel Pipe
Stainless Steel Pipe

What is Stainless Steel Pipe?


Stainless steel pipe is most commonly found in fluid or gas transportation piping systems. Furthermore, stainless steel pipe is made from a steel alloy that contains nickel and chromium, which give stainless steel its corrosion resistance. Due to its resistance to oxidation, stainless steel pipe is a low-maintenance solution for high-temperature and chemical applications.

Furthermore, stainless steel pipe is typically manufactured by welding or extrusion. In addition, the welding process involves shaping steel into a pipe shape. The seams are then weld together to keep the shape in place. Extrusion, on the other hand, creates a seamless product by heating a steel rod and then piercing it through the centre to form a pipe.

Aside from that, the terms “pipe” and “tube” are often used interchangeably to describe the same product. Despite having the same cylindrical shape, steel pipes are measured by the interior diameter (ID), whereas steel tubes are measured by the outside diameter (OD) and wall thickness. On the other hand, pipes carry fluids and gases, whereas tubes are used to build parts or structural components.

Types of Stainless Steel Pipe

  • Seamless Pipe

A seamless pipe is one that contains no seams or weld joints. Because of the metal, it can withstand high levels of pressure as well as high temperatures. It is also used in numerous oil and gas applications. In addition, it is used in the mechanical and engineering industries. As a result, seamless pipes are extremely versatile, and they are always thoroughly inspected to ensure material quality.

  • Welded Pipe

Welded pipes can be found in almost any industry due to their versatility. They outperform in terms of corrosion resistance but not pressure resistance. Welded pipes, on the other hand, are far more cost-effective than most other piping methods. Because of the materials used and their lightweight nature, it may also provide the best value for money.

  • Flanges

Pipe flanges are another critical component of your overall piping setup. Slip-ons, blinds, lap joints, threaded, and semis are among the many styles available. To ensure dependability, these pipe flanges are made of durable and sturdy materials. They also make pipe flanges from high-quality materials.

  • Spectacle Blinds

People will usually use spectacle blinds, spades, and spacers  for temporary or long-term solutions that is allowed for the isolation of piping sections. If a piece of machinery or a section of piping needs to be inspected, spectacle blinds will be used to isolate a specific section of the piping. They will also maintain the overall system during the process. It is recommended that you rigorously test the dependability of your spectacle blinds to stay safe because it is such an important role that is critical to your safety. Because each case is different, it is advised that you consult with a professional before investing large sums of money in spectacle blinds.

Stainless Steel Spectacle Blinds

Characteristics of Stainless Steel Pipe

  • Corrosion Resistance 

Almost all stainless steel pipes on the market are iron-based alloys with at least 10.5 percent chromium content. When chromium is present in an alloy, it forms a self-healing or protective oxide layer. Furthermore, the formation of an oxide layer contributes to the corrosion resistance of stainless steel pipes. Intact corrosion resistance can be achieved regardless of fabrication method due to the self-healing properties of the oxide layer. Even if the stainless steel pipe surface is damaged or cut, it can self-heal and has a high corrosion resistance. 

  • Work Intensification

One of the most significant benefits of work hardening stainless steel pipe grades is that it significantly increases and improves metal strength while also assisting in cold working. Aside from that, the combination of annealing and cold working stages is simple to use in order to provide adequate strength to fabricated components. Besides that, stainless steel pipe can self-heal and has a high corrosion resistance even if the pipe surface is damaged or cut. 

  • Strength and Formability

The strength of stainless steel pipe varies according to grade. In comparison to mild strength, strength remains somewhat constant in soft conditions. Austenitic steel, which is softer, has a high elongation and ductility. As a result, after a lengthy series of semi-fabrication, it can be cold worked to produce a finished product. Furthermore, toughness and strength must be effectively combined to achieve the desired result.

Ferritic stainless steel pipes are also extremely ductile and strong. Following heat treatment produces hardness and high strength in martensitic steel pipes.

  • Ductility

The percent elongation is responsible for ductility when performing a tensile test. The elongation of austenitic stainless steel is very high. The elongation of austenitic stainless steel is very high. Due to its high work hardening and ductility rates, austenitic stainless steel can form and work in a variety of processes, including deep drawing.

  • High Strength

Stainless steel pipe has a higher tensile strength than mild steel. Duplex stainless steel is generally stronger than austenitic steel. As a result, martensitic and precipitation hardening grades have the highest tensile strength. Furthermore, these grade types are twice as strong as other grades.

  • Magnetic Response

Magnetic response generally attracts stainless steel. Austenitic grades are purely nonmagnetic, though cold working can induce it in a few austenitic grades. Non-magnetic grades, on the other hand, such as 316 and 310, can be cold worked.

Stainless Steel Pipe

Types of Industry where Stainless Steel Pipe is Used

i. Oil and Gas

Technology is critical in the oil and gas industries. As the depths at which we search for oil have increased, so has the demand for corrosion-resistant piping. Hence, there will be more strain putting on the duplex and super duplex stainless steel pipes that we use. Corrosive environments can be extremely harmful. Besides that, if the damage is not repaired, the pipes will easily burst, rendering them unusable for deeper depths. Therefore, it is critical to have strong pipes in the oil and gas industry. 

ii. Nuclear Power

It is difficult to extract useful energy from atomic nuclei. Because of cooling requirements, the majority of today’s nuclear reactors are located near the coast. As a result, it will use much of the water to cool these reactors comes from the sea. And it must be corrosion resistant. Stainless steel pipe is critical in the nuclear power industry. This is because of its capable of resisting corrosion caused by seawater.

iii. LNG                                                                                                                                                          Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas that has been cooled to -260 degrees Fahrenheit. So, it can be safely transported to meet the growing demand for natural gas. Also, natural gas is not always feasible or cost-effective to transport via pipelines. So, it is instead transported in liquid form via cryogenic sea vessels and road tankers. As a result, having the proper piping in place to provide safe and cost-effective LNG transport to hard-to-reach areas of the country or the world is critical.

Benefits of Stainless Steel Pipe

Stainless steel is a highly adaptable material that can be used in a variety of indoor and outdoor applications. Using stainless steel pipe for your project has several benefits, including:

  • Lightweight
  • Durable
  • Long-lasting Capable of handling high flow rates
  • Simple to machine
  • Scratch resistance
  • Simple to clean
  • Low-maintenance
  • Outstanding corrosion resistance
  • Recyclable and eco-friendly material


Saliran Group has over 10 years of experiences in trading of a wide range of flanges, pipes, valves, fittings, and related parts and accessories (“PVF products”) as well as steel products with numerous happy customers all around the world. . We supply a variety of stainless steel pipe including stainless steel seamless pipe, stainless steel welded pipe, stainless steel pipe flanges and stainless steel spectacle blinds. 

Click on the link below to contact us now!


Forged Pipe Fittings


What Are Forged Fittings?


Forged fittings are used to connect. branch, blind, or route piping systems with small diameters. Unlike butt weld fiittings, which are made of pipes and plates, forged fittings are made of forging and machining. Also, forged fittings are available in accordance with the standards and specifications of ASME B16.11, MSS-SP-83, SP95, SP97, and BS3799. All of these forged fittings can be used to connect nominal bore pipes. Moreover, they are made of carbon steel A105 and stainless steel SS316. These forged fittings range in size from 1/8″ to 4″. Furthermore, these fittings got their name from the forging process used in their production. The raw material, which is steel alloy or carbon alloy, is heated and formed into a customizable shape during the manufacturing of these fittings.

Besides that, forged fittings are available in both socket weld and threaded configurations. Additionally, these forged fittings are constructed with A105 carbon steel, stainless steel, and even nickel alloy. And all of these raw materials are suitable for the production of pipe fittings. Additionally, forged fittings are heavier, thicker, and designed for use in more demanding applications. Hence, these pipe fittings have pressure classes of 2000#, 3000#, 6000#, and 9000#.


The Various Types of Forged Fittings


There are various types of forged fittings available on the market. For example, 90D elbow, 45D elbow, straight coupling, three-piece union, and three-way tee are among the fitting types. Besides that, end cap, end plug, hex nipple is also available.

Therefore, a three-way tee is arranged in a T shape with one inlet and two outlets. On the other hand, the forged fittings are useful for combining the flow from two channels to a single outlet. In this case, the reducer assists the system in significantly reducing the flow size to a smaller direction.


Elbow, Tee, Nipple, Plug, Coupling, Cap, Bushing, Union, Cross
& Branch Fittings

Size Range

1/4″ (8mm) – 4″ (100mm)


ASME/ANSI 16.11, BS3799, BS1740, MSS SP-83, SP95, SP97


3000lbs, 6000lbs, 9000lbs



Forged Elbow Fitting
Forged Elbow Fitting
Forged Tee Fitting
Forged Tee Fitting
Forged Fittings Nipple
Forged Fittings Nipple
Forged Fittings Plug
Forged Fittings Plug
Forged Fittings Coupling
Forged Fittings Coupling
Forged Fittings Cap
Forged Fittings Cap
Forged Fittings Bushing
Forged Fittings Bushing
Forged Fittings Union
Forged Fittings Union
Forged Fittings Cross
Forged Fittings Cross
forged branch fittings
Forged Branch Fittings

Materials & Specifications

Carbon Steel


High Yield Carbon Steel

  • ASTM A694 F42/ 46/ 52/ 60/ 65/ 70

Low Temp Carbon Steel

  • ASME/ASTM SA/A350 LF1/ 2/ 3/ 6

Chrome Moly

  • ASME/ASTM SA/A182 F2, F5, F9, F11, F12, F22, F91

Stainless Steel

  • ASME/ASTM SA/A182 F304/304L, 316/316L, 309, 310, 310H, 317/317L, 321, 321H, 347, 347H

Duplex/Super Duplex

  • ASME/ASTM SA/A182F51, 53, 55, 60
  • UNS S31803/ S32205/ S32750/ S32760

Nickel Alloy

  • UNS N02200 (Nickel 200), UNS N02201 (Nickle 201)
  • UNS N04400 (Monel 400), UNS N06600 (Inconel 600)
  • UNS N06601 (Inconel 601), UNS N06625 (Inconel 625)
  • UNS N08825 (Inconel 825), UNS N010276 (Hastelloy C276)


  • HIC, PED 97/23/EC, NACE MR0175 available

Manufacturing of Forged Pipe Fittings


Manufacturers adhere to specific standard procedures and norms when producing each marked pipe fitting. Therefore, every forged fitting has a permanent marking on the collar part with the required credentials. Also, the goal of this marking is to keep the user informed while identifying pipe fitting specifications. Other than that, it also allows for the smooth operation of purchase and selection procedures. Furthermore, every forged pipe fitting reflects various marks. For example, the manufacturer’s trademark, the country of origin, the standards, the size, the work pressure capacity, the material, and the pressure.

Characteristics of Forged Steel Fittings

  • Strong and long-lasting

Steel forged fittings have a higher overall strength and toughness than steel processed in other ways. Besides that, forged steel is less likely to shatter when in contact with other objects, making it ideal for items such as swords. This increased strength and durability is due to how the steel is forced into shape during the forging process — by pressing or hammering. In addition, this process stretches the grain of the steel, causing it to be aligned in one direction rather than being random. Also, the forging is cooled in water or oil after pressing or hammering. Therefore, the steel is stronger than if it had been cast by the end of the process.

  • The consistency of forgings

As forged steel fittings is a controlled and deliberate process, with each forging going through the same steps. Hence, it is usually possible to ensure a consistent material over the course of many different forgings. Cast steel, on the other hand, is more random in nature due to the processes used.

  • Size Restriction

It is more difficult to shape the metal during the forging process. This is because forging occurs while the steel is still solid, as opposed to casting, where the metal is reduced to its liquid form as part of the process. As the metallurgist working with the steel will have more difficulty changing the metal’s shape, the size and thickness of the steel that can be successfully forged are limited. Thus, the larger the metal section under consideration, the more difficult it is to forge.


Saliran Group has over 10 years of experiences in trading of a wide range of flanges, pipes, valves, fittings, and related parts and accessories (“PVF products”) as well as steel products with numerous happy customers all around the world. We supply a variety of forged fittings such as elbow, tee, nipple, plug, coupling, cap, bushing, union, cross, and branch fittings.

Click on the link below to contact us now!


Butt Weld Fittings




What are Butt Weld Fittings?


Butt weld fittings are weldable pipe fittings that allow you to change the flow direction, branch off, reduce pipe size, or attach auxiliary equipment. Furthermore, butt weld fittings made of forged steel are manufactured in accordance with ANSI / ASME B16.9. Butt weld fittings are the most common type of welded pipe fitting, and their nominal pipe size and pipe schedule are specified. Besides that, butt weld fittings begin with seamless or welded pipe and are formed (via multiple processes) into the shapes of elbows, tees, and reducers, among other things. Butt weld fittings are more common in stainless steel because of the cost savings.

Also, butt weld fittings are known as welded pipe fittings. These fittings can provide certain advantages over socket weld and threaded fittings while using in stainless steel and carbon steel. Whereas socket weld fittings are only available up to a certain size, butt weld fittings are available in sizes ranging from 1/2 inch to 72 inch.


Types of Butt Weld Fittings

Butt weld 45° Elbow

45-degree elbow with a long radius (1.5 x Diameter) and a 45 degree change in fluid direction.

Butt weld 45 degree elbow
Butt weld 45° Elbow
Butt weld 90° Elbow

90-degree steel pipe elbow with long radius (1.5 x Diameter).

Butt Weld 90 Degree Elbow
Butt Weld 90 Degree Elbow
Butt weld 180° return bend

More than a 90-degree elbow is referred to as a steel bend. For example, long radius and short radius 180-degree bends.

Other than that, butt weld elbow dimensions can be specified as diameter (in NPS) and thickness (in schedule 40 or schedule 80) according to ANSI. For instance, long radius 90-degree elbow 4 inch and thickness in schedule 40 or schedule 80.

Butt weld 180° return bend
Butt weld 180° return bend
Butt weld tee

The vacuum tubing on all three ports of butt weld tee fittings is the same diameter. Hence, tees are commonly used in vacuum piping systems to provide a 90-degree branch.

Butt weld tee
Butt weld tee
Butt weld Reducer

Reducer is a pipeline component. It can reduce the size of the pipeline from large to small bore based on the inner diameter. Therefore, the length of the reduction is equal to the average of the smaller and larger pipe diameters. Moreover, you can also use the reducer as a diffuser or nozzle in this case.

Butt weld Reducer
Butt weld Reducer


Butt weld cap

To close off the end of a pipe, a cap will be applied. Hence, the end caps are used to seal or block off the end of a pipeline. Also, the end cap is welded to the relevant sized pipe within the pipeline that requires blocking off or sealing at the weld prep. Unlike a blind flange, which can be unbolted to allow access to the pipeline, the end cap is permanently attached once installed.

Butt weld cap
Butt weld cap


Specification for Butt Weld Fittings

Carbon Steel ASME/ ASTM SA/ A234-WPB, WPC
High Yield Carbon Steel ASTM A860 WPHY 42/ 46/ 52/ 60/ 65/ 70
Low Temp Carbon Steel ASME/ASTM SA/A420 WPL6
Chrome Moly ASME/ASTM SA/A234-WP5, WP9, WP11, WP12, WP22, WP91
Stainless Steel ASME/ASTM SA/A403WP 304/304L, 316/316L,  309, 310S, 317, 321, 321H, 347, 347H
Duplex/ Super Duplex
  • UNS S31803/ S32205/ S32750/S32760
Nickel Alloy
  • UNS N02200 (Nickel 200), UNS N02201 (Nickle 201)
  • UNS N04400 (Monel 400), UNS N06600 (Inconel 600)
  • UNS N06601 (Inconel 601), UNS N06625 (Inconel 625)
  • UNS N08825 (Inconel 825), UNS N010276 (Hastelloy C276)
Remark HIC, PED 97/23/EC, NACE MR0175 available

How are Butt Weld Fittings Made?


Hot forming would be used to create this type of pipe fitting. By that, it would entail bending the pipe and shaping it into a shape. After that, the manufacturer will cut the pipe to length and that pipe will be the starting material of this fitting. Then, this pipe would be heated and moulded into specific shapes using dies. Also, the heat treatment would be performed to achieve the desired mechanical properties and remove residual stresses.

The Advantages of Butt Weld Fittings

  • Inexpensive and simple to use.
  • It can reduce corrosion action and frictional resistance.
  • Welded joints offer more design flexibility and take up less space.
  • It is usually permanently leakproof for a welding fitting connection.
  • Butt weld fittings are continuous metal structure that connects a pipe and a fitting and has a high strength performance in a piping system.
  • The connection has a smooth inner surface and changes direction gradually. The pressure losses and turbulence for fluid transport will then be reduced.


What is the Difference Between Short Radius (SR) and Long Radius (LR)?


The terms SR45 elbow and LR45 elbow are frequently used. And the 45 or 90 refers to the bend angle for buttweld fitting to change the flow direction. Apart from that, a long radius elbow (LR 90 Elbow or LR 45 Elbow) has a pipe bend that is 1.5 times the pipe size. As a result, a 6-inch LR 90 has a bending radius that is 1.5 times the nominal pipe size. Also, a short radius elbow (SR45 or SR90) has a pipe bend equal to the size of the fitting. So, a 6″ SR 45 has a bending radius equal to the nominal pipe size of 6″.

Looking for flanges, fittings and pipes?

Saliran Group has over 10 years of experiences in trading of a wide range of flanges, pipes, valves, fittings, and related parts and accessories (“PVF products”) as well as steel products with numerous happy customers all around the world. We supply a variety of flange types such as 45,90&180 degrees elbow, long, short radius & 3D elbow reducer, concentric & Eccentric reducer, equal & reducing tee, and end cap.

Click on the link below to contact us now!



Slip On Flange

What is a Slip On Flange?


Slip on flange are also known as SO flange. It is widely known due to its low material cost and ease of installation. There are many different diameters as well as low-pressure models to choose between. Slip on flange, apart from welding neck flanges, lacks a neck to rest on the pipe, necessitating double welding.

Slip On Flange
Slip on flange
Mss Slip On Flange Enlarge


How Does A Slip On Flange Work?


Slip on flange are designed to fit over pipes and are slightly larger inside than pipe. They connect to the pipe via a fillet weld at the top and bottom of the flange. In addition, it is used to insert the pipe into the flange’s inner hole. It is because the flange’s inner diameter is slightly larger than the pipe’s outer diameter. Hence, the pipe and flange can be joined by lap welding at the top and bottom of the flange.

Accordingly, it lacks a weld bevel, hence it is a simple and excellent alternative to a weld neck, allowing the pipe to be adjusted in length relative to the flange’s position. Other than that, the flange’s bore will provide plenty of room for the matching pipe. By that, it provides enough working space for the welder and fabricator to connect.

Besides that, it is very common in low-pressure applications. Most of the flanges would have a hub that looks dimensionally similar to a raised face. If space is tight and also the application enables for a “ring style” slip on, it could be furnished without a hub. Even though the hub style seems to be more usual when referring to a slip on, a ring style slip on without a hub is still considered a slip on flange. In order to have a better connection, the flanges in higher pressure classes are frequently made with the height of a lap joint.

Characteristics of A Slip On Flange


Furthermore, there are a few advantages of slip of flange. While using it, it is lower installation costs and less time spent accurately cutting the pipe. In addition, it makes alignment and leak prevention easier. Aside from that, the hub is low on the flange due to pipe slips in the flange. Also, they take up the least amount of longitudinal space for a flange and are available in a variety of diameters.

On the other hand, it is not recommended for high pressure applications or use with hazardous fluids or gases.

Looking for flanges, fittings and pipes?

Saliran Group has over 10 years of experiences in trading of a wide range of flanges, pipes, valves, fittings, and related parts and accessories (“PVF products”) as well as steel products with numerous happy customers all around the world. We supply variety of flange types such as blind flange, slip-on, weld neck flange, socket weld, threaded, lap joint flange, and orifice.

Click on the link below to contact us now!